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Archive for the ‘PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION’ Category

Introduction

“All men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness”. Indian constitution also recognizes similar rights for its citizens under the fundamental rights chapter. Hohfeld is an American legal theorist who analysed how a law gives rights and corresponding duties to a person. This paper analyses the Fundamental rights enshrined by the constitution to its citizens based on Hohfeldian theory.

Hohfeldian theory of rights

Hohfeld distinguishes four elements or incidents with incident being a right on its own.

  • Claims
  • Privileges
  • powers

Ram holds a claim-right against Rahim to wash Ram’s scarf if and only if Rahim has a duty to Ram to wash Ram’s scarf. Rahim owes this duty to Ram, in particular. His duty is “directed toward” him. In this case Ram, himself, will presumably benefit, but that need not be the case. If Ram holds a claim-right against Rahim to wash Ram’s sister’s scarf, then Rahim still owes this duty to Ram, not to Ram’s sister. He owes this duty to Ram even if Ram hates both her sister and the scarf, although Ram probably has the power to waive her claim-right. A claim-right always has one or more correlative duties. It can be a duty to act, as in Rahim’s case, or to refrain from action: John holds a claim-right against peter to keep off his grass if and only if john has a duty to peter to keep off his grass. The absence of a duty is a privilege. Sita has a privilege-right to sing “Priya” if and only if Sita has no duty not to sing “Priya.” A license to practice medicine gives one a legal privilege-right to do so. Claims and privileges define all the actions that are forbidden, permitted, or required. The two remaining incidents (powers and immunities) are second-order incidents: they specify rights and duties regarding the creation, destruction, and modification of other incidents. Rahul has a power-right under a set of rules if and only if those rules give him the ability to alter someone’s Hohfeldian incidents (his own or someone else’s). If Rahul is a police officer directing traffic, then the legal rules give him a power-right to alter, by means of a hand gesture, a driver’s privilege-right to cross the intersection. If Ramya promises to cook Priya dinner, then Ramya exercises her power-right (under the moral rules of promising) to grant Priya a claim-right against Ramya to cook dinner. The opposite of a power is immunity. If Narendra lacks the ability to alter one of Sunny’s Hohfeldian incidents under a set of rules, then Sunny has immunity against Narendra with respect to that incident. Imagine that Sunny is a teenaged minor child and Narendra is his father. Narendra orders Sunny to mow the lawn every summer, which gives Sunny a duty to mow the lawn. When Sunny reaches legal adulthood, he acquires immunity against Narendra’s orders: Narendra loses the legal power to impose such duties on Sunny by means of orders. Hohfeld depicts the relationships between the incidents with two charts, which include some terminology that Hohfeld invented for the sake of logical completeness:

Opposites

  • If someone has a claim, then she lacks a nonclaim.
  • If someone has a privilege, then she lacks a duty.
  • If someone has a power, then she lacks a disability.
  • If someone has immunity, then she lacks a liability.

Correlatives

  • If someone has a claim, then someone else has a duty.
  • If someone has a privilege, then someone else has a nonclaim.
  • If someone has a power, then someone else has a liability.
  • If someone has immunity, then someone else has a disability.

Fundamental Rights in India compared with Hohfeldian Incidents

The incidents can combine into various complex rights, such as Fundamental rights provided by the Indian Constitution. Ramesh’s Fundamental rights Consists of the following,

Ramesh has a privilege to form association or unions. He has no duty not to form association or unions.

  • Ramesh has a claim right to form associations or unions. The state has a duty not to infringe upon this claim right.
  • Ramesh has various powers over these claim-rights.
    1. If he is a railway coolie he can use this right and form an association along with his friend Danny.
    2. He has every right to renounce this membership of association with friend Danny whenever he wants
  • He can transfer his rights of membership to any other citizens.

If the state prohibits Ramesh from forming association without his consent then it is infringing his right. If the state is not justified in doing so, then philosophers would say that it does not just infringe his right, but the state violates them. If violation of rights is for special reasons, like in the interest of security of state, then it would be called justified infringement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Public administration is as old as society and state themselves. It evolved as the agency of state which runs the administration of the country. However, conscious theorizing about it is, perhaps, less than a century old. According to Woodrow Wilson the late evolution of public administration was due to the fact that the Governments had passed through three Stages-the period of absolute rulers; the period of struggle for constitutionalism and popular control; and the period when on winning political battles, people started thinking about freedom and perfect machinery for democratic administration. The first systematic writer on public administration was the American president Woodrow Wilson whose article entitled “The study of public administration” in the political science quarterly in 1887 set the ball rolling for the study of public administration as a separate discipline.

In 1900 Frank Goodnow in his influential work ‘Politics and Administration’, put forth the thesis that the fields of politics and administration were separate areas of public life and hence the two must be separate and public administration must study only the field of administration and the study of politics to political science which resulted in the development of permanent civil Service free from political influence.

Many later writers have attempted to reduce the scope of public administration in an attempt to provide focus to the study of modalities of policy implementation rather than policy formation. ” Introduction to the study of public administration “, by L.D White published in 1926 focused on the study of various principles of public administration and promoted further development public administration in the U.S. A. White has defined public administration as consisting of all those operations having for their purpose the fulfillment or enforcement of public policy. The emphasis here is on the activities of the executive branch of the government and the classic work L.D. White had the effect of directing the study of public administration towards the executive branch. Other prominent scholars like Luther Gullick and Herbert Simon also had the same opinion.

By 1939 public administration had made great strides in its development in to a science and in that year the American society for public administration was formed with its quarterly journal, the Public Administration Review. The American society of Public administration provided a forum for the scholars and practitioners to meet together and exchange views which helped in the spread of theories, ideas and led to the development of science of public administration. This development in the U.S.A was also aided by some management scholars who developed the scientific management movement in the country. The ‘father’ of the scientific Management Movement in the U.S.A was F. W. Taylor. The Human Relations school of Elton mayo (to which school Herbert Simon belonged) contributed a human dimension to public administration which emphasized on the individual and his behavior in organizations. This development turned public administration from purely a mechanical study of the process of policy implementation as projected by Willoughby in to a human subject interested in the role of the individual in the organization and in devising means to get the best out of the individuals manning the administration.

In the post war years, public administration changed its character and there was a change in its scope and methods of investigation. Till the end of the World War II, the development of the science of public administration was confined to the U S A and Europe and most of the scholars and practitioners in the field studied the administrative systems of the USA or Europe and arrived at generalizations which they tried to apply to in all countries. After World War II came to an end, there came about the independence of the colonies and the need for development of administrative systems suited to these colonies arose. Scholars, therefore, found the need to arrive at generalizations in the field of public administration which would be applicable in these countries with diverse political economic and social systems. Led by scholars like F.W. Riggs, Ferrel Heady, Gabriel A. Almond and others, the comparative public Administration came in to being and it started the comparative study of systems of public administration, comparing the systems of different countries, developed, underdeveloped, and arriving at principles applicable across a broad range of countries. The comparative public administration movement greatly broadened the study of public administration by emphasizing the development of principles of administration applicable across the board in different situations. It was a timely extension in the scope of the subject because it greatly helped the process of economic development in the developing countries of Asia and Africa and made the study of public administration truly universal. The contribution of Ferrel Heady and F.W. Riggs in this area is important, because they provided the impetus needed for the extension of the scope of public administration. This led to the development of the comparative administration movement and the rise of Development Administration as an important part of the public administration. The modern view of public administration is that it is government-in-action.

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Introduction

Woodrow Wilson is regard as the founder or father of study of public administration. His title rests on his Seminal essay entitled “The Study of public administration” which was published in the Political Science quarterly in 1887. Wilson wrote his essay, “The Study of Public Administration” in the era of the Progressive movement which covered the last two decades of the nineteenth Century. In the United States, this movement was developed in response to increasing Urbanization, immigration, the seeming loss of traditional values, Corruption, etc. There was maladministration due to rampant political corruption and the Prevalence of the “spoils system” introduced by President Andrew Jackson. Under this system only the loyal political supporters of the Party’s Victorium at the Polls were appointed to administrative posts As a consequence less qualified and sometimes Unqualified people entered the Public service and contributed to the increasing inefficiency of public administration.

Influenced by the progressive movement Woodrow Wilson was also convinced that there was a need to reform the government and the reforms should be in the field of public administration so as to make it more efficient. It was in this context of prevalent maladministration and the consequent administrative reforms that Wilson emphasized in his essay, the development of the science of public administration as the appropriate cure for corrupt and inefficient administrative system. This vision of Wilson also marked the emergence of public administration as a separate and independent field of Study.

Wilson’s View on Politics and Administration

Woodrow Wilson is usually regarded as the Originator Of the doctrine of politics- administration dichotomy. In his essay Wilson divided government into two separate spheres of politics and administration. In his opinion, politics is dealt with questions of policy formulation; administration is dealt with carrying them out. He defined public administration as “detailed and systematic execution of public law”.

Wilson characterized public administration as a field of business .He Said, “the field of administration is a field of business….. Removed from the hurry and strife of politics” He Stated that administration lies outside the proper sphere of politics. Administrative questions are not political questions. Although politics sets the tasks for, it should not be suffered to manipulate its offices”. He further observed that “public administration is a Part of political life only as the methods of counting house are a Part of the life of the society; only as machinery is part of a manufactured product”. To Wilson, politics is the special Province of the statesman and administration that of the technical official. Wilson Wanted that administrators should not involve themselves in the political process .Thus Wilson tried to establish the distinction between politics and administration.

By expounding the politics –Administration dichotomy theory, Wilson urged strongly for the creation of a technically competent and politically neutral administrative system for a democracy. It should be separate from the political system, although it is under democratic control. Wilson believed that if public administration could be separated from the practical politics and the influences of the spoils system prevailed at that time in the USA, it might become more business-like and develop on scientific lines in its own right. Thus his goal was to call attention to the need for efficient administration and to keep it out of Partisan Politics. Wilson saw the Study Of public administration as the latest fruit of that Study of science of politics which was begun some two thousand two hundred Years ago. The foundations of public administration “are those deep and permanent principles of politics”. Thus for Wilson, it is said, the Study of public administration, derived from the Study of politics, was to be distinguished from it, but never divorced from its “maxims” and “truths”. To Wilson, public administration was much more than technical detail and it was to be conducted in a political context .Thus he treated “politics and public administration as two sides of a coin”.

Table 1 Politics and (public administration) Dichotomy -Dividing Politics and Administration

Politics

Administration

Deals with the “expression of the will of the people “.

Deals with the “Execution of the will of the people”.

Deals with Politicians

Deals with Civil Servants

One becomes Politician by his popularity ,either through positive or negative popularity

Positive Popularity , e.g., Sonia Gandhi

Negative Popularity e.g. Poolan Devi

One becomes Civil servants by his intelligence

One becomes Politics through election

One becomes civil servant through selection

Prior training is not given to politician

Civil servants are professionals

Power is the Centre of study in politics i.e , process of capturing and retaining power

Running administration successfully is the central focus here

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Introduction

The approaches to the study of Public administration can be categorized from many angles such as normative approach and empirical approach. Normative approach concentrates on what public administration should be. Empirical approach sets its eyes on description and analysis of actual administrative Situations. Another classification of approaches is based upon the objects of study the individual scholar seeks to emphasize, such as;

  1. Philosophical approach
  2. Legal approach
  3. Historical approach
  4. Scientific approach
  5. Case Method Approach
  6. Institutional and Structural Approach
  7. Behavioural Approach

Philosophical Approach

The Philosophical approach takes within its purview all aspects of administrative activities. Its goal is to find out and enunciate the principles or ‘ideals’ underlying these activities. This approach is found in Locke’s ‘Treatise on civil Government’, Plato’s ‘Republic’, ‘Hobbes’, ‘Leviathan’, etc. The philosophical approach is perhaps the oldest approach to public administration as of all other social sciences.

Legal Approach

The legal approach is the systematically formulated approach and traces its ancestry to the European tradition of rooting Public administration in law. Public administration was considered to be a part of law, concentrating on legally prescribed structure and organization of Public authorities. This approach was formed at a time when the functions of the state were narrowly limited and simple in nature. The legal or juristic method is mostly used in France, Germany, and Belgium. These countries have a long tradition of administrative law. The administrative law is an important branch of Public law and is conceived in quite broad terms so as to include the organization and functions of public authorities and with the problem of their correlation, powers and responsibilities. Public administration is considered to be a part of administrative law and as such it is studied in the legal framework. In India also the administrative study was mainly preoccupied with the legal foundations of administrative authority and its procedures and was narrower in its scope than that of European continent because there law itself was conceived in broad sociological terms whereas in India, it had a narrow juristic connotation.

Historical Approach

The historical approach to the study of public administration Seeks to recreate a segment of history. It Studies the public administration of the past with a particular time span, organizing and interpreting the information in a Chronological order. This approach naturally commands a powerful attraction in a society having rich past and can be valuable in identifying the uniqueness of the administrative system.

Scientific Approach

Public administration like many other social sciences makes use of the inductive method of proceeding from particular to general through observation for collecting the data, classification of data and verification of the hypotheses. The scientific management movement gave a great fillip to the use of this method in the development of effective techniques of organization and management and of budgeting and supply. Administration was separated from politics. It was treated as a mechanical organization and was subjected to the rigours of laws of mechanics. Although the Study of public administration has now passed off the Stage of scientific management fad, many activities of the office management, accounting and control of material and supply are still determined on the scientific principles. Measurement of work, time and motion studies, work flow charts, cost accounting and opinion sampling and polls are the techniques based on the Scientific and technical method for the solution of administrative problems.

Case Method Approach

A case is a narration of what has actually taken place in administration, keeping in fact the context and all relevant dimensions. Ably, handled, the case method approach is a sensitive one, seeking as it does to reconstruct the administrative realities and gives to students a flavour of the administrative Process. The case approach has been motivated by a commitment to the objectives and methods of social sciences. It has been shaped also by a considerable sensitivity to traditional concerns of humanities and by practical interest in pedagogy as against research. The case method to the study of public administration began to be popularized in the thirties. The case method has come to stay in public administration, but it cannot become the dominant approach. In Public administration, case study is essentially historical method. It is a method in which an administrative decision, in any given question or issue, is made the focal point for historical exposition. Its aim is to point out as to what factors or considerations- political, economical, and personal or any other-influence the decision of the administrator and also to know the process of decision or policy-making. The case as presented to the student in the file on monograph comprises every possible aspect of the situation. It is best presented as a running account embodying explanations of various procedures as they occur in relation to the circumstances. It provides the student with indications concerning the legislative and institutional framework within which the problem to be solved by the administrative agencies arises. It also, wherever possible contains notes to help the analyst understand the psychological back-ground, the characters of the people who took part in the case, the tensions among the staff of the administrative organization concerned, and other factors. The account as a whole is intended to reconstruct and explain, with reference to the greatest number of identifiable factors, the initiation, procedure and conclusion of the operation concerned and more specially, the process of formalizing the administrative decision. The case histories are prepared with the help of relevant documents and files, inquiries and interviews with officers concerned and all other sources of the case. ‘Public Administration and policy Administration’ published by the interuniversity case programme of the United States was a pioneering use of this technique. Following this several national institutes of public administration of various countries have launched their own study programme. Early in the sixties the Indian Institute of Public Administration (I.I.P.A) brought out three books on case studies the I.I.P.A and the National Academy of Administration have prepared about eighty case studies in memography form for their training use. The I.I.P.A recently published four more volumes of its case Studies. Some of the limitations of this that, re-living another person’s life through case studies never succeed. Secondly, the most significant part of a decision is the agony of it; one cannot re-lire the agony anxiety and put himself in another individual’s position.

Institutional and structural Approach

This approach to the study of public administration is the oldest and in point of number, it has the largest following. But it is least homogenous of all schools of public administration as it includes among its protagonists, teachers and research workers with varied training, ranging from political scientist to specialists in scientific management techniques. The common features of this school which distinguishes it from other schools of administrative thought. These features are of follows

  1. The followers of this school took policy administration dichotomy quite seriously. They defined the task of administration as nonpolitical or technical which lay merely in carrying out the will of political authority by either neutral means. They directed all their efforts to discover ‘principles’ of public administration.
  2. The early work of this school is characterized by an empirical and pragmatic approach. Their sole aim was to describe a set of facts and not to build any theories. This view prevails particularly in United States during the period between the two world wars and its greatest exponents were Leonard.D.White and Luther Gulick.

Since the fifties of the last century, there has been a shift in this approach. Although the study has retained its institutional character, yet the policy administration dichotomy has been qualified after being found too hasty. More attention is now being given to the normative aspects of public administration and administration is being viewed as an element in political theory and the accepted political Values. Scholars like John. M. Gaus and Paul Appleby of this school have frankly given up the technical view of public administration and they approach public administration from the broad political standpoint.

Behavioural Approach

This approach examines public administration by studying individual and collective human behavior in administrative situation. It brings to bear upon administrative problems on inter-disciplinary approach which includes Sociology, individual and social psychology and cultural anthropology. Originated in the United States this approach focuses on the actual behavior of persons and groups in organizations and has four Characters which are of follows

  1. The increased attention to the individual and his relationship to the administrative organization in which scientific-management approach tended to consider him rather as a thing or a means, without taking in to account the different aspects of his personality and his relationship to interests and social group other than the administrative organization in which he worked. Increased attention to the individual in administration is based on more realistic research concerning motivation, decision making process and nature of authority.
  2. Administration is studied as a social system with the result that whereas formerly attention was concentrated exclusive on formal and rational relationships of the organization, now informal relationships of men in the organization receive equal attention.
  3. On account of these developments, more importance is given to communication. This is understandable because an administration is described as a complex aggregate of human relations. Under the traditional approaches the only recognized means of communication were the formal orders and circulars issued by the superior to the subordinates and reports and returns submitted by the subordinates to their superiors. But under the new approach, the informal means of contact and communication receive of as much attention as the formal ones.
  4. Replacement of the theory of Sovereignty by that of legitimacy. The concept of political sovereignty had given birth to the theories of hierarchical structure, line of authority, chain of command, delegation and others. Under the new approach, there is an increasing tendency to analyse the reason why given persons, considered individually and collectively, feel that they must obey orders. Thus emphasis is put on administrative leadership and motivation.

In this method a new approach is followed by comparing the behavioral pattern of public administration in different countries, this comparative method has been used in studying the contemporary system of government and administration. The Behavioural science and the case study approach has impacted a distinct shift in the techniques of comparative approach in which the normative study of comparative administration merged gradually into the empirical and explanatory writings on different administrative systems. The recent trend is towards a nomothetic approach whereas earlier it was towards ideographic approach. Ideographic approach showed interest in concrete situations, case studies, area information and particular facts while the present emphasis is on theory or testable propositions which assert regularities of behavior and correlation between variables. The new trend involves a greater interest in the environment factors as they interact with public administration. It is now realized that these factors conditions and are conditioned by governmental behavior and hence their study is an essential part of study of public administration.

The Consensus Approach

The principles of public administration developed at the time were devices suggested to achieve efficiency. This efficiency-oriented approach coupled with the anti- patronage movement was strengthened by the view that policy making and policy implementing are two different things. Policy –determining was considered to be field of politics, and policy-implementation, the field of administration. It is now accepted that administration is involved in policy formulation also. It is now wrong to say that policies can be formulated without the advice or assistance of administrative staff .The whole theory of ‘delegated legislation’ disproved the dichotomy between politics and administration. According to Appleby,” Public administration is policy-making”. It is not autonomous, exclusive or isolated policy-making. It is policy-making on a field where mighty forces contend- forces engendered in any society. Further, public administration cannot be fruitfully studied apart from its political and social setting.

The Structural approach concentrated on the description of the administrative structure of the government bodies. This approach emphasizes the study of PODSCORB techniques of administration. But the administrative structure and techniques cannot be studied without proper reference to the environment in which public administration is working as well as the human factor. According to the scientific management approach, the problems of the public administration should be studied by the methods and spirit of science. Taylor concentrated on the work methods, machines and materials. He was concerned with the questions of mechanical efficiency. Scientific management taking efficiency as the objective, views administration as a technical problem concerned basically with the division of labour and specialization of functions. This approach is considered defective because it ignores the human elements in administration.

The socio-psychological approach or the Behavioural approach believes that public administration should be concerned with the study of human behavior in organization and operations of the various organizations. According to Simon decision making is the most important activity of administration. Human beings who work in an organization have aspirations and desires. Their behavior is conditioned by their psychology, motives and social environment. The administrative science should study these ‘facts’ of behavior without getting involved in the question of ‘values’. This new approach is universalistic in character and its purpose is to build a system of interlocking generalizations about how organizations actually behave in these organizations.

Summary

The approaches to the study of public administration can be summarized as

  1. Public administration was studied from the background of administrative law .The emphasis in this jusrisdical approach is on formal structures both constitutional and administrative. It has been concerned with officers, with duties, limitations, prerogatives and disabilities of officers and with legal, litigation and rights of Citizen.
  2. In the comparative public administration approach stimulated by the United Nations, the emphasis is on understanding the problems of administration operating under different socio –political and cultural settings.
  3. Another approach is to study public administration in relation to political parties and pressure groups.
  4. Historical approach is also a fascinating area of study. Many lessons can be learnt by studying the history of administration.
  5. Institutional approach is to study the structure. It deals with the study of organs of the State.
  6. The Behavioural approach claims to explain administrative processes that are common to many forms of organization. The focus is on human behavior, including Psychology, Sociology and anthropology.

The Post War Trend of Public administration has been:

  1. The assault upon the politics –administration dichotomy
  2. The assault upon the claims to science and to universal principles of administration, and
  3. Sociological studies of bureaucracy.

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The Public Interest

Public administration is vitally concerned with efficiency and economy. Alongside this efficiency approach there has been a growing concern about what may broadly be called ‘morality’ or ‘ethics’ in Public administration. Government has to serve the common good without making any sort of distinction between men. Efficiency in government has thus a moral tone. Against this background the broad theory of public interest has emerged to provide general frame work for the functioning of public administration. There are several reasons for the concern for public interest .The members of the bureaucracy constitutes of Power elite. They are likely to take decisions in self-interest or under pressure from the Powerful interest groups. In either case, Public interest suffers. Further, the bureaucracy is a mindless machine that turns out decisions mechanically .The rule- bound administration may look neat and tidy, but it may not be able to serve the wider cause of public interest. According to Herbert Simon, administrative decisions are often based on grounds other than those of efficiency and economy. Social and psychological factors greatly influence the way decisions are taken by the decision-makers .The importance of a Sense of public interest as wider ethical Commitment in public administration assumes significance in this context.

Philosophies of Public administration fall broadly in to four classes:

  1. Intuitionism
  2. Perfectionism
  3. Utilitarianism
  4. Theory of Justice

Intuitionism

The administrator Choose an alternative by intuition-a solution which seems to him the right Course of action under the given Circumstance.

Perfectionism

The administrator views Public interest from the standpoint of promotion of excellence in all spheres of Social activities. Public resource should be spent in such a way that the best members of the Society benefit most from the expenditure. Thus seen Perfectionism is an elitist Philosophy and anti-egalitarian and is not compatible with democratic society.

Utilitarianism

According to Utilitarian Philosophy the Public interest is served When a Public policy makes as many as possible better-off even though it may render a few worse-off. Public interest is judged by the augmentation of the net balance of social satisfaction.

Theory of Justice

This theory has two principles .The first principle is that each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others. The other principle postulates that Public Policies are reasonably expected to be to everyone’s advantage and public position and offices are open to all. In case of Conflict between these Principles, the second Principle is expected to prevail and give way to the first. These principles provide an operating logic for the determination of public interest by the decision- makers.

Philosophies of Public administration- A Review

Of all the major ethical frameworks for public administration, the intuitionist Philosophy justifies the Status quo and is of very little help in actual administrative situation .The Perfectionalist philosophy favours excellence at the expense of social equality. It is antidemocratic. Utilitarian Calculus has the merit of emphasizing total social good, but it also accepts the Position that a few may be worse-off. Compared to all these Philosophical positions, the theory of justice seems much more balanced and represents a workable way for determining the public interest by public administrators.

Human factor in Administration    

The human factor is the central Concern of public administration .It is meant for human beings and is manned by people. Firstly, it is involved in the relations between administration and its employers and Secondly, between administration and the administered, the public. In the recent pass, the State has been assuming new and newer responsibilities and has been entering in to hitherto forbidden fields. A large organization functions through standardized systems and methods .In this process, the human aspect is likely to be ignored. The human factor is exposed to risk of being forgotten or neglected .It is essential to maintain effective communications and relationships with employees within the general framework of organization, Command and discipline requirements. The Second aspect relates to the Relationships between the administration and the administered. The meaning of the word ‘administration’ as derived from the Latin root word; suggest that the administrator should regard himself as a servant, not the master. The people, not the administrators, are the centre of things and they should always be approach on terms of friendly equality. According to Jawaharlal Nehru “Administration like most things is, in the final analysis, a human problem to deal with human beings, not with some Statistical data ….. …The administrator may think in abstract of people he deals with, but which miss the human element. After all, whatever department you deal with, it is ultimately a problem of human beings. Administration is meant to achieve something and not to exist in some Kind ivory tower; following certain rules of Procedure and Narcissus-like looking on itself with complete self satisfaction .The test after all is humor beings and their welfare.

Public Administration-a Synoptic view

Public administration, as commonly defined, is the activity of the state in the exercise of its Political powers; in a narrow sense, the activity of the executive departments in the conduct of the government. In a literal sense of the term, Public administration also includes the functions of the courts in the administration of justice and the work of all the agencies, military as well as Civilian, in the executive branch of the government. A broader definition would include consideration of judicial structure and procedure and likewise the special machinery and methods employed by the armed forces in addition to legislative management. But in practice the scope of the activities of public administration is restricted to the organization and operations of the executive branch of the government only. It is felt that if all the Complex activities of all three branches of government, which are undertaken to fulfill public purposes, are studied, the subject will become unwieldy leading to confusion and losing its unity. Thus in the narrow sense, public administration includes primarily the organization, personal practices and Procedures essential to the effective performance of civilian functions entrusted to the executive branch of government. Public administration is primarily concerned with the implementation of public Policy laid down by representative Political bodies. Its main task is essentially the implementation and enforcement of public policy and the law of the state. It is both a process and vocation, with the management of the activities of others in the public agency. The activities of public administration are expressed through organization and human beings. Public administration is a human activity. It is managed by the human beings and it serves human beings .It is the action part of the government, the means by which the purposes and goals of government are realized. The Scope of public administration is to Study the Problems of men, materials and methods in administration. Keeping in view the activities of the present day administration the Study of public administration should include

  1. Administration as a process common to government at all level-central, State and local
  2. The activities of the government and the methods used by operating officers
  3. Personal and financial management
  4. Public relations and public accountability
  5. Social and cultural environment
  6. Human behavior of those in the heart of administrative activities
  7. Human beings who use the tools and techniques of administration

Felix A. Nigro has summarized the various aspects of the definition and scope of public administration as follows:

  1. It is a cooperative group effort in public setting.
  2. Covers all three branches-executive, legislative, and judiciary and this interrelationships
  3. It has an important role in the formulation of public policy and is thus a part of political process
  4. It is more important than, and also different in significant ways from private administration
  5. As a field of Study and practice, it has been much influenced in recent years by human-relation approach
  6. It is closely associated with numerous private groups and individuals in providing services to the community.

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Introduction –The Public Interest

    Public administration is vitally concerned with the efficiency and economy. By spending least resources, the administration becomes result-oriented and Productive. Alongside this efficiency approach, there has been growing Concern about what may broadly be Called ‘morality’ or ‘ethics in Public administration. Government has to serve the common good without making any distinction between Man and man. Efficiency in government thus has a moral tone. Against this background the broad theory of public interest has emerged to provide general framework for the functioning of public administration. There are several reasons for the Concern of for public interest. The members of the bureaucracy constitute Power elite. They are likely to take decision in self interest or under pressure from powerful interest groups. Further, the bureaucracy is a mindless machine that turns out decisions mechanically. The rule-bound administration may look very neat and tidy, but it may not be able serve the wide Cause of public interest and according to Herbert Simon administrative decisions are often based on the grounds other than those of efficiency and economy. Social and psychological factors greatly influence the way the decision see taken by the decision-makers. Thus the importance of a sense of public interest as a wider ethical Commitment in Public administration assumes significance in this context.

Philosophies of Public interest fall broadly in to Classes.

  • Intuitionism:

    • The administrator Chooses on alternative by intuition- a Solution which seems to him the right course of action under the given circumstances.
  • Perfectionism

    • The view of the administrator here is that Public interest should be the Standpoint of promotion of excellence in all spheres of social activities. Public resources should be spent in such a way that the best members of the society benefit most from the expenditure. Thus perfectionism is an elitist Policy and is not compatible with democratic society.
  • Utilitarianism

  • Theory of Justice

    • This theory has two principles. The first principle is that each Person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with similar liberty for others. The other principle postulates that public Policies public policies are reasonably expected to be everyone’s advantage and public positions and offices are open to all. In case of conflict between these principles, the second Principle is expected to Prevail and give way to the first. These Principles provide an operating logic for the determination of public interest by the decision makers.

These are the major ethical frameworks of the public administration. The intuitionist Philosophy Justifies status quo and is of very little help in an administrative situation .The perfectionist philosophy favours excellence at the expense of social equality. It is antidemocratic. Utilitarian calculus has the merit of emphasizing total Social good, but it also accepts the position that a few may be worse off. Compared to all these philosophical positions, the theory of justice seems much more balanced and represents a Workable way for determining the Public interest by the public administrators.

Human factor in public administration

    The human factor is the central concern of public administration. Firstly it involves the relationship between the administration and its employers and secondly between administration and the administered, the public. A large organization functions through standardized systems and methods. In this process, the human aspect is likely to be ignored and thus the human factor is exposed to the risk of being forgotten or neglected. It is always essential to maintain effective communications and relationships with the employees within the general framework of organization, Command and discipline requirements. The second aspect relates to the relationships between the administration and the administered. It is imperative that the administrator should regard himself as the servant and not as the master. The People, not the administrators, are the centre of the things, and they should always be approached on terms of friendly equality. The real motto of the administration should be the welfare of human beings.

Public Administration a synoptic view

    Public administration is primarily concerned with the implementation of the Public policy laid down by representative Political bodies. Its main task is essentially the implementation and enforcement of public policy and the law of the State. It is both a process and vocation. As a process it is concerned with the implementation of Policy and as a vocation, with the management of the activity of others in the Public agency. Public administration is a human activity. It is managed by the human beings and it serves human beings. It is the action Part of the government, the means by which the purposes and goals of the government are realized .The Scope of the public administration is to Study the problems of men, materials and the method of administration. Keeping in view the activities of the present day administration, the Study of public administration should include

  1. Administration as a process Common to governments at all levels-central, State and local.
  2. The activities of the government and the methods used by the operating officers.
  3. Personal and financial management.
  4. Public relations and public accountability.
  5. Social and cultural environment.
  6. Human behavior of those in the heart of the administrative activities.
  7. Human beings who use the tools and techniques of administration.

Summary of various aspects of the definition and Scope of Public administration

  1. It is a Cooperative group effort in the public Setting.
  2. Covers all three branches-executive, legislative and judiciary and their interrelationships.
  3. It has an important role in the formulation of Public Policy and is thus a Part of political process.
  4. It is more important than, and also different in significant ways from private administration.
  5. As a field of Study and practice, it has been much influenced in recent years by human-relation approach.
  6. It is closely associated with numerous private groups and individuals in providing services to the Community.

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Administration is as old as Mankind. It has existed ever since Man began to organize himself. Administration is a Process common to all group effort, Public or private, Civil or military, large scale or Small scale. The word Administration is derived from the Latin word ‘ad’ and ‘ministrare’ which means to serve. Considered as an concrete activity, administration includes all types of Work necessary to achieve the goal in view it assumes Myriad of Shapes and forms in various subject matter fields; it is both skill and on art and its Process is Universally identical Administration has been practiced from time immemorial only it form and style have been Undergoing Changes to suit the Changing needs over the period of time.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Public administration is a segment of the wider field of Administration. Woodrow Wilson defines Public administration as “detailed and systematic application of law”.

Meaning and Scope of public administration

  • Public administration is the whole government in action
  • It includes all operations having for their purpose the fulfillment or enforcement of public policy.
  • The science of public administration is an enquiry as to how Policies may best be carried in to operation.
  • Public administration is Concerned with “What”- the technical knowledge of a field which enables the administrator to perform his tasks; and the ‘how-the technique of management according to which the Programmes are Carried to success.
  • It involves, managing, directing and supervising the activities of thousands or even millions of workers so that some order and efficiency may result from their efforts.
  • The core of the Public administration is not the method management but the goods and services that are produced or tendered

Scope and Significance of Public administration

    The full scope of public administration would cover administrative theory and applied administration. The wellbeing of the nation (society) is increasingly dependent on the efficiency of the Government (i.e.) Public administration. The future of the Civilized Government and even the Civilization rests on the competence, efficiency and efficacy of the Public administration. Every Individual in the modern society is Concerned with and totally interlinked with public administration at every form of his or her life right from the cradle to the grave; nay even before his or her birth (in the form of pre-natal care of the expectant mother) to even after his or her death (proving his Will and thereby taking Care of his property in certain ways). Thus on account of the importance of the public administration it has been rightly described as the “Heart of Modern civilization”.

Art VS Science

    While Public administration is widely accepted as an Art, whether it is a science is a debatable One. There are Some Who holds it as social science because administration deals with vast amount of data, applications of methods related scientific enquiry. Nevertheless this point is debatable because public administration deals with humans who unpredictable and irrational animal which contradicts itself with the Phenomenon of science which is based on Nature and proved Principles of its physical characters. Therefore there is still a certain degree of uncertainty in accepting Public administration as science because most of its principles are tentative conclusions or deductions from certain inarticulate major promises which may not be universally present. Public administration can be considered as instrument to achieve the goals set by government. Thus with the growing importance of public administration in public functions, Public administration became more and more complex and hence it needed a complete overhaul with Scientific investigations in to the working of Government and its employees. So a need for a review of administrative practices were voiced upon by the Practitioners and Academies alike, Thus a symbolic beginning of fairly autonomous field of academic enquiry began with the publication of an essay by Woodrow Wilson in 1887 in which Wilson said “There Should be a science of administration which Shall seek straighten the path of the Government, to make its business less unbusiness-like to strengthen and purify its organization, and to crown its duty with dutifulness “. Now with public administration identified as a means to meet the ends of the government then came irony of whether it deals with executive function of the government or it is an integrated entity of all the three branches of the government namely legislative, Judiciary, Executive. Those who hold the broader view feel that all the branches are interrelated and one cannot function without the help of other, thus keeping in mind, one can come to on conclusion that public administration should be studied inclusively with all the three-departments of the government and also as a Part of larger political process.

Philosophy of Administration

    Public Administration today has come to determine the vigour and quality of every institution Therefore Ordway Tread has emphasized the need for the formulation of the Philosophy of public administration which according to him would lead to more professional self-consciousness and convinced sense of social Justification among the executives. Some of the important Points as philosophy of public administration put forward by Marshall E.Dimock are

  • It must bring into Sharp focus to all elements entering in to administrative action.
  • All elements entering in to administrative action should be integrated and brought in to a system of proper and unified relationship.
  • Where possible principles are developed, it should be borne in mind that they are valid guides for future action under substantially Similar conditions.
  • Administration is concerned with both ends and means .A Skillful fusion of the two is the test of administrative excellence. That means must be in the spirit and harmony with the ends.
  • A Philosophy of administration should be conceived in such a way that, if it describes reality and provides reliable tools to the executive, it constitutes a grand total which exceeds the sum of its parts.
  • A Good administrative system should communicate spirit and sounded feeling of widespread satisfaction.

Meaning of public Administration

    Public administration is concerned with the purposes of society as a Whole, as opposed to groups within it, such as trade unions, businesses and the like. Public administration is therefore concerned with the purposes of the State. The Government, a specialized group of People in the State can be said to provide policies for society aimed at establishing Goals and ends of the society while public administration is concerned with achieving them. Public administrators deal with the activities of the State as opposed to private administrators who are concerned only about the goals of non-state actors. One of the important aspects of Public administration is Public accountability .Administration has been defined as cooperative human effort towards achieving a common goal. Public administration is that species of administration which operates within a specific political setting. It is the action Part of the government, the means by which the goals of the government is realized.

Nature of Public administration

    There are two broad views in the nature of public administration. They are,

  • Integral View
  • Managerial view

Integral view

    According to this view, public administration consists of all those operations (manual, clerical, managerial, technical etc) having for their purpose the fulfillment or enforcement of public policy. Some of the proponents of integral view are L.D.white and Henry fayol.

Managerial view

    The Managerial view postulates that administration is the organization and the use of men and materials in the pursuit of Common objectives. It thus does not include all activities of administration in to its ambit but takes out only those activities for its Study which involves techniques of management. Some of the proponents this view are Herbert Simon, Smithburg and Thompson and Luther Gullick.

    Neither of these views can be rejected outright. It all depends on the context in which the term is used. Finally to Conclude, As a Study public administration examines every aspect of governments efforts to discharge the laws and to give effect to the Public Policy; As a process, it is all the Steps taken commencing from the time an Enforcement agency assumes jurisdiction to the laying of last brick; As a Vocation, it is organizing and directing the activities of others in a public agency

Elements of public Administration

    Public Administration compromises of the following elements

  • Organization
  • Management of personnel
  • Method and procedure.
  • Public Finance
  • Administrative Accountability

    Organization

        This involves the Structuring of individuals and functions in to productive relationship. It represents the Static part of the administration. It is called as the anatomy of public administration.

    Management of Personnel

        This is concerned with the direction of individuals and functions to achieve the predetermined ends. It represents the dynamic aspect of Administration and it may be called the Physiology of administration.

    Method and Procedure

        This represents the technique of administrating, the process of working, and the law of administration.

    Material and supply

        This includes the tools with whose help the administrative Work is carried on.

Public Finance

    This is the material without which Personnel cannot be employed and work cannot be performed. This is the chief determining factor in public Administration, in fact, in the whole government, as the efficiency and the prestige of the administration depends upon it.

Administrative Accountability

    This is the accountability of the administration both in terms of internal Control as well as external responsibility to the judiciary, the legislative and the People.

    

    

    

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